In this paper is raw research on the run studying the Jesus and the Egyptian connection. The sources I have included is the Urantia Book, and a website that discusses the duality of Jesus in both the Hebrew and Egyptian religions and other connections and parallels. In the following are extracts that begins the research and is on going.
Throughout the two years of their sojourn at Alexandria, Jesus enjoyed good health and continued to grow normally. Aside from a few friends and relatives no one was told about Jesus' being a "child of promise." One of Joseph's relatives revealed this to a few friends in Memphis, descendants of the distant Ikhnaton, and they, with a small group of Alexandrian believers, assembled at the palatial home of Joseph's relative-benefactor a short time before the return to Palestine to wish the Nazareth family well and to pay their respects to the child. On this occasion the assembled friends presented Jesus with a complete copy of the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. But this copy of the Jewish sacred writings was not placed in Joseph's hands until both he and Mary had finally declined the invitation of their Memphis and Alexandrian friends to remain in Egypt. These believers insisted that the child of destiny would be able to exert a far greater world influence as a resident of Alexandria than of any designated place in Palestine. These persuasions delayed their departure for Palestine for some time after they received the news of Herod's death
Michael line 95: Since the disappearance of Melchizedek in the flesh, no human being up to that time had possessed such an amazingly clear concept of the revealed religion of Salem as Ikhnaton. In some respects this young Egyptian king is one of the most remarkable persons in human history. During this time of increasing spiritual depression in Mesopotamia, he kept alive the doctrine of El Elyon, the One God, in Egypt, thus maintaining the philosophic monotheistic channel which was vital to the religious background of the then future bestowal of Michael.
And it was in recognition of this exploit, among other reasons, that the child Jesus was taken to Egypt, where some of the spiritual successors of Ikhnaton saw him and to some extent understood certain phases of his divine mission to Urantia.
Jesus in the book of the dead
line 96: Moses, the greatest character between Melchizedek and Jesus, was the joint gift to the world of the Hebrew race and the Egyptian royal family; and had Ikhnaton possessed the versatility and ability of Moses, had he manifested a political genius to match his surprising religious leadership, then would Egypt have become the great monotheistic nation of that age; and if this had happened, it is barely possible that Jesus might have lived the greater portion of his mortal life in Egypt.
PAPER 191 - APPEARANCES TO THE APOSTLES AND OTHER LEADERS, Oct 19 2000
6. THE ALEXANDRIAN APPEARANCE
line 111: While the eleven apostles were on the way to Galilee, drawing near their journey's end, on Tuesday evening, April 18, at about half past eight o'clock, Jesus appeared to Rodan and some eighty other believers, in Alexandria. This was the Master's twelfth appearance in morontia form. Jesus appeared before these Greeks and Jews at the conclusion of the report of David's messenger regarding the crucifixion. This messenger, being the fifth in the Jerusalem-Alexandria relay of runners, had arrived in Alexandria late that afternoon, and when he had delivered his message to Rodan, it was decided to call the believers together to receive this tragic word from the messenger himself. At about eight o'clock, the messenger, Nathan of Busiris, came before this group and told them in detail all that had been told him by the preceding runner. Nathan ended his touching recital with these words: "But David, who sends us this word, reports that the Master, in foretelling his death, declared that he would rise again." Even as Nathan spoke, the morontia Master appeared there in full view of all. And when Nathan sat down, Jesus said:
"Peace be upon you. That which my Father sent me into the world to establish belongs not to a race, a nation, nor to a special group of teachers or preachers. This gospel of the kingdom belongs to both Jew and gentile, to rich and poor, to free and bond, to male and female, even to the little children. And you are all to proclaim this gospel of love and truth by the lives which you live in the flesh. You shall love one another with a new and startling affection, even as I have loved you. You will serve mankind with a new and amazing devotion, even as I have served you. And when men see you so love them, and when they behold how fervently you serve them, they will perceive that you have become faith-fellows of the kingdom of heaven, and they will follow after the Spirit of Truth which they see in your lives, to the finding of eternal salvation.
"As the Father sent me into this world, even so now send I you. You are all called to carry the good news to those who sit in darkness. This gospel of the kingdom belongs to all who believe it; it shall not be committed to the custody of mere priests. Soon will the Spirit of Truth come upon you, and he shall lead you into all truth. Go you, therefore, into all the world preaching this gospel, and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the ages."
Note: it was the twelfth morontia appearance as Jesus made his appearance at the meeting of believers at Alexandria Egypt.. I wonder if Jesus made this appearance the twelfth on purpose as a subtle reference to the The Book of Gates which is a description of the Egyptian version of the morontia transition after death through the twelve gates.
The Book of the Gates
The Gates of Eden
line 114: When the Master had so spoken, he vanished from their sight. All that night these believers remained there together recounting their experiences as kingdom believers and listening to the many words of Rodan and his associates. And they all believed that Jesus had risen from the dead. Imagine the surprise of David's herald of the resurrection, who arrived the second day after this, when they replied to his announcement, saying: "Yes, we know, for we have seen him. He appeared to us day before yesterday."
Here is an interesting website that researches Jesus in the ancient Egyptian text. The Egyptian account seems to have aspects of Jesus embedded in their texts. This can also be identified in the Book of the Dead.
Note some interesting parallels
Essene prophecy of Jesus
reference to the Garden click
Jesus and bringing us back to the garden prophecy click here
Jesus and the Egyptian connection click here
Jesus and the Book of the Dead Connection Click here
Interesting to note there are several of Jesus appearances after his death to certain people that where he made in a garden.
Jesus as recorded by the
Essenes and the
Sevenfold, Infinite Garden parallel
Jesus and the Garden prophecy
All this day Peter characteristically vacillated emotionally between faith and doubt concerning the Master's resurrection. Peter could not get away from the sight of the grave cloths resting there in the tomb as if the body of Jesus had just evaporated from within.
The Gospel of Thomas 18 declares
"Tell us how our end will be." Jesus said, "Have you discovered, then, the beginning, that you look for the end? For where the beginning is, there will the end be. Blessed is he who will take his place in the beginning; he will know the end and will not experience death,"
(Matt. 16:1). "When it is evening, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.’ 3"And in the morning, ‘There will be a storm today, for the sky is red and threatening.’ Do you know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but cannot discern the signs of the times? 4"An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign; and a sign will not be given it, except the sign of Jonah." And He left them, and went away," (Matt. 16:1).
Here some results of results in the Egyptian Book of the Dead that speaks about the location.
In addition here is a link that links Horus with Jesus. The last Egyptian Book of The Dead was written during Iknanton time who introduced monotheistic religion into Egypt.
A symbol that looks like the shape of the location
The Symbol of Shenu in Egyptian book of the dead "Shenu" The tree of life.
THE OSIRIS AUFANKH, WHOSE WORD IS TRUTH, SAITH: Hail, saith Horus, O Twenty-first pylon of the Still-Heart! I have made the way. I know thee. I know thy name. I know the name of the goddess who guardeth thee. "Sword that smiteth at the utterance of its own name, stinking face, overthrower of him that approacheth her flame" is thy name. Thou keepest the hidden things of the avenger of the god, thou guardest them. Amam is his name. He maketh the ash trees (cedars) not to grow, and the shenu trees (acacias) not to blossom, and preventeth copper from being found in the mountain. The Tchatcha (Chiefs) of this Pylon are Seven Gods. Tchen, or Anthch (At), is the name of the one at the door. Hetepmes is the name of another there. Messep is the name of another there. Utchara is the name of another there. Beq is the name of another there. Anp (Anubis) is the name of another there.
From here http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/egyptian/bookodead/book4.htm
The Seven Gods or is that, in further reflection of the Sevenfold truth found in the Egyptian Book of the Dead "The Seven Gods or the Sevenfold truth" Is this the Jesus Connection. Note: in the following forum link in a few words Jesus makes references to Keywords that are actual realities occurring in the moment. "Sevenfold study pathway to the Garden"
Note: Jesus and the Sevenfold connection and reflections of
the garden and the Seven paths. On Earth as it is in Heaven.
Jesus as recorded by the Essenes and the Sevenfold, Infinite Garden parallel
[And the god Osiris saith:] "Thou hast come, thou shalt be a favoured one in Tetu, O Osiris Auf-ankh, whose word is truth, the son of the lady Shert-en-Menu, whose word is truth." Does this refer to Jesus? It seems to have all the signs about it.
In the following I feel is a description of Jesus and the connection with the Garden from the Egyptian prospective.
[THE CHAPTER OF] ENTERING INTO THE HALL OF MAATI TO PRAISE OSIRIS KHENTI-AMENTI. The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:-
I have come unto thee. I have drawn nigh to behold thy beauties (thy beneficient goodness). My hands are [extended] in adoration of thy name of "Maat." I have come. I have drawn nigh unto [the place where] the cedar-tree existeth not, where the acacia tree doth not put forth shoots, and where the ground produceth neither grass nor herbs. Because it is submerged and hidden until now. Now I have entered into the habitation which is hidden, Discovered the thing that is hidden and I hold converse with Set. Deals with the Lucifer rebellion as prohecied and is connection to the discovery, through Judgement. My protector advanced to me, covered was his face.... on the hidden things. could this mean an R.O.V. with lights and camera physically on the hidden things cutting something out of the mountain. He entered into the house of Osiris, he saw the hidden things which were therein. entering the vestiges of Eden of what was there. The Tchatchau Chiefs of the Pylons were in the form of Spirits. Angels, The unseen world, Could be The Ancient of Days could witnessing the event. Pylons representing a time period, note the 21st pylon, 21st Century. The angels witnessing a major event in the spiritual world and in the physical. The god Anpu spake unto those about him with the words of a man who cometh from Ta-mera, saying, "He knoweth our roads and our towns. I am reconciled unto him. When I smell his odour it is even as the odour of one of you." And I say unto him: I the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace, whose word is truth, have come. I have drawn nigh to behold the Great Gods. Certainly the last piece fits perfectly with the image of Jesus, the sovereign of this universe coming into the garden and bringing mankind to the Garden. The Jesus prophecy I would live upon the propitiatory offerings [made] to their Doubles. I would live on the borders [of the territory of] the Soul, the Lord of Tetu. He shall make me to come forth in the form of a Benu bird, and to hold converse [with him.] I have been in the stream [to purify myself]. I have made offerings of incense. sanctified it and showed respect I betook myself to the Acacia Tree of the [divine] Children. Partook of the tree of life. Tree of life I lived in Abu in the House of the goddess Satet. Lives with the gods I made to sink in the water the boat of the enemies. reference to the deluge. I sailed over the lake [in the temple] in the Neshmet Boat. So the Garden of the Gods was in a lake or an inland sea another clue that parallels the Sarmast hypothesis and Plato. I have looked upon the Sahu of Kamur. I have been in Tetu. I have held my peace. I have made the god to be master of his legs. I have been in the House of Teptuf. I have seen him, that is the Governor of the Hall of the God. I have entered into the House of Osiris and I have removed the head-coverings of him that is therein. does this mean I removed something significant that will change knowledge. I have entered into Rasta, and I have seen the Hidden One who is therein. I have discovered it I was hidden, but I found the boundary. But know I am found. The discovery of it has been accomplished. discovery of Atlantis I journeyed to Nerutef, and he who was therein covered me with a garment. submerged because of a deluge I have myrrh of women, together with the shenu powder of living folk. mourning of the event Verily he (Osiris) told me the things which concerned himself. I said: Let thy weighing of me be even as we desire. Let it be known and let the evidence be weighed.
And the Majesty of Anpu shall say unto me, "Knowest thou the name of this door, and canst thou tell it?" And the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, in peace, whose word is truth, shall say, "Khersek-Shu" is the name of this door. And the Majesty of the god Anpu shall say unto me, "Knowest thou the name of the upper leaf, and the name of the lower leaf?" 12 gates of Eden that protected the isle of Maati [And the Osiris the scribe Ani] shall say: "Neb-Maat-heri-retiu- f" is the name of the upper leaf and "Neb-pehti-thesu-menment" [is the name of the lower leaf. And the Majesty of the god Anpu shall say], "Pass on, for thou hast knowledge, researched the knowledge Jesus and the Sevenfold the Seven paths note the seven paths. O Osiris the scribe, the assessor of the holy offerings of all the gods of Thebes Ani, whose word is truth, the lord of loyal service [to Osiris]."
APPENDIX (From the Papyrus of Nu, Brit. Mus. No. 10477, Sheet 22)
Very interesting converse with Jesus about sealed books very interesting.
line 95: "The thing most deplorable is not merely this erroneous idea of the absolute perfection of the Scripture record and the infallibility of its teachings, but rather the confusing misinterpretation of these sacred writings by the tradition-enslaved scribes and Pharisees at Jerusalem. And now will they employ both the doctrine of the inspiration of the Scriptures and their misinterpretations thereof in their determined effort to withstand these newer teachings of the gospel of the kingdom. Nathaniel, never forget, the Father does not limit the revelation of truth to any one generation or to any one people. Many earnest seekers after the truth have been, and will continue to be, confused and disheartened by these doctrines of the perfection of the Scriptures.
extract from the above link
"But the greatest error of the teaching about the Scriptures is the doctrine of their being sealed books of mystery and wisdom which only the wise minds of the nation dare to interpret. The revelations of divine truth are not sealed except by human ignorance, bigotry, and narrow-minded intolerance. The light of the Scriptures is only dimmed by prejudice and darkened by superstition. A false fear of sacredness has prevented religion from being safeguarded by common sense.
The fear of the authority of the sacred writings of the past effectively prevents the honest souls of today from accepting the new light of the gospel, the light which these very God-knowing men of another generation so intensely longed to see.
extract from the above link
"But the saddest feature of all is the fact that some of the teachers of the sanctity of this traditionalism know this very truth. They more or less fully understand these limitations of Scripture, but they are moral cowards, intellectually dishonest. They know the truth regarding the sacred writings, but they prefer to withhold such disturbing facts from the people. And thus do they pervert and distort the Scriptures, making them the guide to slavish details of the daily life and an authority in things nonspiritual instead of appealing to the sacred writings as the repository of the moral wisdom, religious inspiration, and the spiritual teaching of the God-knowing men of other generations."]
Who is the physician that influenced in the background the religion of Iknanton?
The Urantia Book 1934
- line 94: The teachings of Amenemope were slowly losing their hold on the Egyptian mind when, through the influence of an Egyptian Salemite physician, Sinhue a woman of the royal family espoused the Melchizedek teachings. This woman prevailed upon her son, Ikhnaton, Pharaoh of Egypt, to accept these doctrines of One God.
Further research is based on the above Urantia Book statement. How is the physician in the background which through the mother of Iknanton influenced the first monotheist religion in Egypt..
This is the tale of an Egyptian palace official/physician called Sinuhe who was the physician who influenced the mother of Iknanton mother Tiyi who then influenced Iknanton.
- The story of Sinhue
. At the death of the old king, he fears strife and flees Egypt to build a new life in exile under a ruler in Syria. At the height of his powers he is challenged to a duel by a Syrian champion: Sinuhe kills his opponent in the duel, and begins a period of peace. At the approach of old age, he feels driven to return home to end his days, and be buried, as an Egyptian. The reigning king of Egypt invites him back, and he returns to the palace he had left years earlier. He has learned what it means to be an Egyptian, and he has become an Egyptian again - but can he, or his audience, really be the same after this voyage of self-discovery?
Perhaps Sinhue decides to escape because there was a changing of the guard that meant the end of the Iknanton religion and he had to escape the religious back lash to wipe it out and it s priests. Some years later he was welcomed back. Its speculation but it seems to fit the Sinhue story including the Urantia Book account.
Sinhue links http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html
tiyi the mother of Iknanton.
At the above link you can see the face of Tiyi the mother of Akhenaten./Iknanton who influenced him in the one God concept the birth of Atun Ra.
Figure G-2. Miniature yew-wood bust of Tiyi in the Mature Style of Amarna. The headgear has apparently undergone considerable reworking, changing from a Cap Crown to a short wig surmounted by a horned Hathoretic crown. Discovered in the Faiyum, now in the Agyptisches
Could the name of the Salemite physican who influenced iknanton in the one God concept called Sinuhe
Here is an extract.
Addressing a young physician named Sinuhe, the hero of the piece, Tiyi reminisces about her own youth:
also here some interesting information on the mother of Tiyi.
The mythology revolves around Yuya himself. For reasons not entirely clear (both his unusual name and his striking profile are surely factors), a succession of writers have tried to identify him with Joseph, son of Jacob, the Biblical figure who according to the Book of Genesis became the vizier of an unnamed Egyptian king through his skills in dream interpretation. The principal contemporary exponent of this claim is Ahmed Osman, author of The Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt. Interested readers are referred to Osman for further discussion.
The Urantia Book:1934 Times of Joseph
PAPER 93 - MACHIVENTA MELCHIZEDEK, Oct 19 2000
line 158: It was hard for the next generation to comprehend the story of Melchizedek; within five hundred years many regarded the whole narrative as a myth. Isaac held fairly well to the teachings of his father and nourished the gospel of the Salem colony, but it was harder for Jacob to grasp the significance of these traditions. Joseph was a firm believer in Melchizedek and was, largely because of this, regarded by his brothers as a dreamer. Joseph's honor in Egypt was chiefly due to the memory of his great-grandfather Abraham. Joseph was offered military command of the Egyptian armies, but being such a firm believer in the traditions of Melchizedek and the later teachings of Abraham and Isaac, he elected to serve as a civil administrator, believing that he could thus better labor for the advancement of the kingdom of heaven.
line 161: The Hebrew narratives of Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph are far more reliable than those about Abraham, although they also contain many diversions from the facts, alterations made intentionally and unintentionally at the time of the compilation of these records by the Hebrew priests during the Babylonian captivity. Keturah was not a wife of Abraham; like Hagar, she was merely a concubine. All of Abraham's property went to Isaac, the son of Sarah, the status wife. Abraham was not so old as the records indicate, and his wife was much younger. These ages were deliberately altered in order to provide for the subsequent alleged miraculous birth of Isaac.
- 5. Elohim. In Kish and Ur there long persisted Sumerian-Chaldean groups who taught a three-in-one God concept founded on the traditions of the days of Adam and Melchizedek. This doctrine was carried to Egypt, where this Trinity was worshiped under the name of Elohim, or in the singular as Eloah. The philosophic circles of Egypt and later Alexandrian teachers of Hebraic extraction taught this unity of pluralistic Gods, and many of Moses' advisers at the time of the exodus believed in this Trinity. But the concept of the trinitarian Elohim never became a real part of Hebrew theology until after they had come under the political influence of the Babylonians.
Within 500 years between Joseph and Abraham, the great grand father of Joseph
figure this MELCHIZEDEK materialised 1,973BC and lived for 95 years 1878 B.C. and Abraham lets say lived in Egypt for a short time in 1868.B.C years. let say 10 years thats makes the dates 1858B.C. then he returns to Jerusalem and lives there for 58 years Lets say Abraham died in 1800B.C.
That's a 400 year gap for Isaac, Jacob and then Joseph to fill from around 1800B.C. to 1450B.C beginning of Yuyas influence but was born in 1500BC.
then Isaac lives 100 years and lives with his dad for 15 years, 1725BC
then Jacob lives for a 100 years and lives with his dad for 20 years, 1660BC.
there appears to be an around a 200 hundred year gap.
The Joseph Yuya, Abraham great grand son Joseph or (Yuya, he lived to 60) maybe and they ruled at around 1470 B.C.
The we know that Amenhotep III and in the background Yiri mother of Iknanton ruled 1390-1352 B.C
lets assume Its speculation but that about 400 years to bridge the generation gap. That is quite possible. they probably lived long lives.
From Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and then Joseph (Yuya). 4 generations. 400 years.
From 1850B.C. to 1450B.C. 400 Years time span. quit possible. I assume at the time of Joseph infancy, Joseph would of journeyed into Egypt as a young man at around 1460BC maybe sooner... Abraham was dead. But the time distance was close.
Another interesting Abraham and Egypt link
- PAPER 93 - MACHIVENTA MELCHIZEDEK, Oct 19 2000
- line 105: Not long after they had established themselves near Salem, Abraham and Lot journeyed to the valley of the Nile to obtain food supplies as there was then a drought in Palestine. During his brief sojourn in Egypt Abraham found a distant relative on the Egyptian throne, and he served as the commander of two very successful military expeditions for this king. During the latter part of his sojourn on the Nile he and his wife, Sarah, lived at court, and when leaving Egypt, he was given a share of the spoils of his military campaigns.
- Joseph's honor in Egypt was chiefly due to the memory of his great-grandfather Abraham. Joseph was offered military command of the Egyptian armies, but being such a firm believer in the traditions of Melchizedek and the later teachings of Abraham and Isaac, he elected to serve as a civil administrator, believing that he could thus better labor for the advancement of the kingdom of heaven
- line 78: Egypt was intellectual and moral but not overly spiritual. In six thousand years only four great prophets arose among the Egyptians. Amenemope they followed for a season; Okhban they murdered; Ikhnaton they accepted but halfheartedly for one short generation; Moses they rejected. Again was it political rather than religious circumstances that made it easy for Abraham and, later on, for Joseph to exert great influence throughout Egypt in behalf of the Salem teachings of one God. But when the Salem missionaries first entered Egypt, they encountered this highly ethical culture of evolution blended with the modified moral standards of Mesopotamian immigrants. These early Nile valley teachers were the first to proclaim conscience as the mandate of God, the voice of Deity.
Amenemhet I - Sehetepibre - 1937-1908 B.C. around the of the advent of the Melchizedek 1,973 B.C.
This 11th Dynasty vizier assumed the throne when Montuhotep IV died. It is believed that Amenemhet usurped the throne from the reigning king. He campaigned against the Libyans and the Asiatics in the Sinai. There he erected the Wall of the Prince to guard the eastern borders. He also built a trading post in Nubia at Kerma. He named his capital city, (on the border of Upper and Lower Egypt), Itj-Tawy, 'Seizer of Two Lands.'
Among his many wives was Nefrutotenen, mother of Senwosret I. Amenemhet made Senwosret I co-ruler in 1971 B.C. Amenemhet's line, from non-royal birth, began a golden age for Egypt. The Testament of Amenemhet , included in the Milligan Papyrus and the Papyrus Sallier II, was written as a commemorative following Amenemhet's death. The Testament defines royal obligations and the needs of the people. It states that there are perils awaiting a king that is not alert to those around him. It also states that loneliness and personal sacrifice make for a good king.
Was Amenemhet I the real origination of the Hyskos rule? Was Amenemhet I the Vizier (prime minister) a distant cousin of Abraham, the one who took over the throne? or was the following pharoah the cousin? Was this Abrahams distant cousin who was a Chaldeen/Sumerian administrator or the Vizier of Egypt before assuming the throne?
Information about the exodus of the Hyskos and most likely linked to the exodus.
Who was the Physicain who influenced Iknantons mother?
More about Sinhue, getting closer to the trail
The world of ancient Egypt springs magnificently to life in this astonishing historical novel of love, war, political intrigue, and religious revolution. Told from the first person point of view, it is the story of Sinuhe, physician to the royal court of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his successors in the middle of the tumultuous 14th century B.C. From his exalted position, Sinuhe was able to observe and participate in some of the most intimate and important decisions that affected the powerful Egyptian kingdom of the 18th Dynasty during a very troubled period of its history. Waltari brilliantly captures the life and rhythms of the ancient world as it was 3,400 years ago.
When Sinuhe is sent as envoy to various foreign courts, including Babylon, Syria, and Crete, he encounters strange people with even stranger customs and beliefs. But Sinuhe is a tortured soul, a man who has been in love many times, and always to his sorrow. He travels to forget. Based on actual historical events, Sinuhe encounters many of the real life characters who are familiar to many: Pharaoh Akhnaton, Queen Nefertiti, Tutankhamon, and the ruthless Horemheb...all real people whose lives, images, and stories are known to us from stone engravings, sculpture, and papyrus chronicles brought to light by modern archaeology.
Follow along on a journey down the ancient Nile to a time of mysterious religions, beautiful palaces, and squalid urban life...to a time of spiritual and political passions that threatened to overwhelm an entire kingdom.
The Egyptian: Volume 1 begins with the story of Sinuhe's youth and education, his first love affair and the disaster that follows. We follow Sinuhe on his dangerous journey to the north, into the lands of Syria, Babylon, and Crete where he encounters new ways of thinking, new religions, barbaric customs and refined luxuries. And where he again finds love. The volume ends with Sinuhe's return to an Egypt seething with revolt.
The Egyptian Physican Sinhue
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Egyptian is the first, and the most successful, of Waltari's great historical novels. It is set in a fascinating period of ancient Egyptian history, the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaton who has been claimed the first monotheistic ruler in the world. The hero of the novel is not Akhenaton, however, but Sinuhe, the royal physician, who tells the story in exile after Akhenaton's fall and death. Apart from incidents in Egypt, the novel charts Sinuhe's travels in Babylon, in the Minoan Crete, among the Hittites, and among other surrounding cultures.
The main character of the novel is named after that of an ancient Egyptian text commonly known as The Story of Sinuhe. The original story dates to a time long before that of Akhenaton: texts are known from as early as the 12th dynasty.
Although Waltari employed some poetic license in combining the biographies of Sinuhe and Akhenaton, he was otherwise much concerned about the historical accuracy of his detailed description of ancient Egyptian life and carried out considerable research into the subject. The result has been praised not only by readers but also by egyptologists.
The Egyptian (in Finnish Sinuhe egyptiläinen) is a historical novel by Mika Waltari. It was first published in Finnish in 1945, and in an abridged English translation by Naomi Walford in 1949.
Seven path temple direction
and his wife Tiyi, Nefertiti's nurse
Great Hymn to the Aten
The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ayclose
Kheperkheprure Ay (occasionally Aya or Aye) was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period (probably 1325-1321 BC or 1327-1323 BC, depending which chronology is followed), although he was a close advisor to two (perhaps three) of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was the power behind the throne upon which his immediate predecessor sat.
Born a commoner, Ay managed to rise through the hierarchy of Egyptian society under the "heretical" Pharaoh Akhenaten. One version of events maintains that he and his wife Tey were the parents of Akhenaten's chief wife, Nefertiti and that another of their daughters, Mutnedjmet, was the wife and queen of Horemheb, Ay's successor. Another version suggests that he was the son of Yuya and Tjuyu. Thus being a brother or half-brother of Tiy, brother-in-law of Amenhotep III and maternal uncle of Akhenaten. The two theories are not mutually exclusive, but either relationship would explain the exalted status to which Ay rose (see below), during Akhenaten's Amarna interlude, when the royal family turned their backs on Egypt's traditional gods and experimented, for a dozen years or so, with monotheism – an experiment that, whether out of conviction or convenience, Ay seems to have supported, at least for as long as it lasted.
In his Amarna tomb, Ay's titles are give as Companion, Head of the Companions of the King, Father of the Divinity, Bearer of the fan on the right hand side of the King, Acting Scribe of the King, beloved by him, and Overseer of all the horses of the King. Some of these titles are purely standardised noble ones, but the 'Bearer of the fan on the right hand side of the King' is a very important position, and is viewed as showing that the bearer had the 'ear' of the ruler.
Akhenaten's reign was followed by that of the boy-king Tutankhamun, who ascended to the throne at the age of nine or ten, at a time of great tension between the new monotheism and the old polytheism. He was assisted in his kingly duties by his predecessor's two closest advisors: Grand Vizier Ay and General of the Armies Horemheb. Tutankhamun's nine-year reign, largely under Ay's direction, saw the gradual return of the old gods – and, with that, the restoration of the power of the established priesthood, who were furious at having had their influence sidestepped under Akhenaten.
Rule as Pharaoh
Tutankhamun's untimely death at the age of 18, together with his failure to produce an heir, left a power vacuum that his Grand Vizier was quick to fill: Ay is depicted in the famous treasures of the boy king's tomb conducting the funerary rights for the deceased monarch and assuming the role of heir. The grounds on which Ay based his claim to the throne are not entirely clear. He was certainly a powerful figure under Tutankhamun, as he had been under Akhenaten: in some records he is referred to as "regent", and he had been close to the center of power for some 25 years. This was probably still not enough, however, to legitimise his claims to the throne in the highly hierarchical society of Ancient Egypt, particularly at a time of upheaval. To strengthen his rule, Ay appears to have married Tutankhamun's widow Ankhesenpaaten (by then known as Ankhesenamun). Since he was already advanced in age upon his accession, Ay ruled Egypt in his own right for only Four years. During this period, he consolidated the return to the old religius ways that he had initiated as Tutankhamun's senior advisor. He was succeeded, at the end of the dynasty, by Horemheb rather than his intended heir, Nakhtmin.
Ay had tombs prepared for himself in both Amarna and Thebes. The former (known as Southern Tomb 25), still visible today, is well preserved and provides some excellent examples of the distinctive style of art that flourished during the Amarna period. It was never finished, however, or used for his burial. Ay was ultimately buried in his second tomb (designated WV23) in the western branch of the Valley of the Kings. One of Horemheb's undertakings as Pharaoh was to eliminate all references to the monotheistic experiment, a process that included expunging the name of his immediate predecessors – especially Ay – from the historical record. Horemheb desecrated Ay's burial and had most of Ay's royal cartouches in his WV23 Tomb Wall paintings erased while his sarcophagus was smashed into numerous pieces. However, the sarcophagus lid was discovered by Otto Schaden in 1972 and still preserved Horemheb's cartouche; it had been buried under debris in his tomb.
- Otto Schaden, Clearance of the Tomb of King Ay (WV 23), JARCE 21(1984) pp.39-64
- [http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/pharaons/ay/e_ay.htm The Tomb of Ay] Category:1320s BC deaths Category:Pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
, in the rock tombs at Akhetatenclose
Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1353 BC). The name for the city used by the ancient Egyptians was Akhetaten (or Akhetaton – transliterations vary), meaning "the Horizon of the Aten". The site was discovered in 1887 when a local woman digging for sebakh uncovered a cache of 300 tablets (now known as the Amarna letters). These tablets were diplomatic correspondence of the Pharaoh and were written in Akkadian, the language commonly used during the Late Bronze Age of the Ancient Near East for such communication. The frequent designation "Tell el-Amarna" for the city is inaccurate: nowhere do the ancient remains constitute a mound of eroded architecture that would warrant the description of a "tell" (Arabic: "city mound"), so common elsewhere in the region. Cyril Aldred notes that the name "Tell el-Amarna" is a misunderstanding of the name for one of the modern villages near the ruins, Et Til el Amarna. The name "Amarna" itself comes from the name of a tribe of nomads, the Beni Amran, who left the Eastern Desert in the 18th century to settle on the banks of the Nile along this stretch. Excavation at Amarna has been conducted by a number of British and German excavation teams. One of the best-known 19th century archeologists who worked in this area was Karl Richard Lepsius, who copied wall illustrations and inscriptions, and took paper squeezes of reliefs. The 19th century records made by these teams are of immense importance since many of these remains were later vandalized by the locals in anger against the Egyptian Antiquities Service. The current investigations have been in annual operation since the late 1970s, directed by Dr Barry Kemp (Reader in Egyptology, University of Cambridge, England) under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Society (EES).
The city of Akhetaten
The city was built as the new capital of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, dedicated to his new religion of worship to the Aten. Construction started in year 4 of his reign (1364 BC or 1346 BC) and was probably completed by year 9 (1359 BC or 1341 BC), although it became the capital city two years earlier. It is the only ancient Egyptian city for which we have great details of its internal plan, in large part because the city was abandoned shortly after the death of Akhenaten, and remained uninhabited thereafter. However, due to the unique circumstances of its creation and abandonment, it is questionable how representative of ancient Egyptian cities it actually is. The city as a whole is divided into a number of wide-flung components, which include:
- Royal Wadi and Tombs
- Tombs of the Nobles
- Tomb of Akhenaten
- Workmen's villages
- Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten Amarna art is unique among the Egyptian world for its realistic depiction of its subjects, instead of the strict idealistic formalism universal in Egyptian art up until that point, as well as for depicting many informal scenes such as the royal family playing with their children. Although the worship of Aten (known as the Amarna heresy) was completely suppressed, the artistic legacy had a more lasting impact. Famous landmarks at the site include:
- North City
- Northern Palace
- Great Temple of the Aten
- Great Royal Palace
- Small Aten Temple
- Kom el-Nana
Chronology of investigation
1714 – Claude Sicard, a French Jesuit priest travelling through the Nile Valley, describes the first known boundary stela from Amarna. 1798-1799 – Napoleon's corps de savants prepare the first map of Amarna, subsequently published in Description de l'Égypte between 1821 and 1830. 1824 – Sir John Gardiner Wilkinson explores and maps the city remains. 1833 – The copyist Robert Hay and his surveyor G. Laver visit the locality and uncover several of the Southern Tombs from sand drifts, recording the reliefs. (The copies made by Hay and Laver languish largely unpublished in the British Library). 1843 and 1845 – The Prussian expedition led by Richard Lepsius records the visible monuments and topography of Amarna in two separate visits over a total of twelve days, employing drawings and paper squeezes. The results are ultimately published in Denkmäler aus Ægypten und Æthiopien between 1849 to 1913. Despite being somewhat limited in accuracy, the engraved Denkmäler plates nonetheless form the basis for scholastic knowledge and interpretation of many of the scenes and inscriptions in the private tombs and some of the Boundary Stelae for the remainder of the 19th century. 1887 – A cache of nearly 400 clay tablets inscribed in cuneiform are discovered by an Amarna woman, which are now known as the Amarna letters. 1891–1892 – Sir Flinders Petrie works for one season at Amarna, working independently of the Egypt Exploration Fund (EEF). Excavating primarily in the Central City, Petrie investigates the Great Temple of the Aten, the Great Official Palace, the King's House, the Records Office and several private houses. Although frequently amounting to little more than a sondage, Petrie's excavations reveal additional cuneiform tablets, the remains of glass factories, and a great quantity of discarded faience, glass and ceramic in sifting the palace rubbish heaps (including Mycenaean sherds). Publishing his results and reconstructions rapidly, Petrie is able to stimulate great interest in the site's potential. 1903–1908 – Norman de Garis Davies publishes drawn and photographic descriptions of private tombs and boundary stelae from Amarna. 1907–1914 – Led by Ludwig Borchardt, the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft excavates the North and South suburbs of the city. The famous bust of Nefertiti – now in Berlin's Ägyptisches Museum – is discovered amongst other sculptural arteftacts in the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose. The outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 terminates the German excavations. 1921–1936 – The Egypt Exploration Society (EES) returns to excavation at Amarna under the direction of T.E. Peet, Sir Leonard Woolley, Henri Frankfort and John Pendlebury. The renewed investigations focus on religious and royal structures. 1960s - The Egyptian Antiquities Organization (now the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities) undertakes a number of excavations at Amarna. 1977 – present – The EES returns once more to excavation at Amarna, now under the direction of Barry Kemp. 1980 – A second, shorter expedition led by Geoffrey Martin describes and copies the reliefs from the Royal Tomb, later publishing its findings together with objects thought to have come from the tomb.
- [http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/Projects/Amarna/home.htm Amarna, Capital of Ancient Egypt] Information page of the University of Cambridge excavations
- [http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/Projects/Amarna/Model2004.htm/modelindex.htm Model of the City] Interactive map of Amarna.
- [http://katherinestange.com/egypt/gallery.htm Amarna Art Gallery] Shows just a few, but stunning, examples of the art of the Amarna period.
- [http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/budge.html Wallis Budge describes the discovery of the Amarna tablets] Category:Ancient Egypt ja:アマルナ
. It is attributed to Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) himself, and gives us a glimpse of the artistic outpouring of the Amarna period. The hymn suggests that Akhenaten considered Aten as the only god, and creator of the universe, particularly in the verses translated as: :How many are your deeds, :Though hidden from sight, :O Sole God beside whom there is none! :You made the earth as you wished, you alone, :All peoples, herds, and flocks; :All upon earth that walk on legs, :All on high that fly on wings, :The lands of Khor and Kush, :The land of Egypt. Akhenaten's religious reforms (later regarded heretical and reverted by his successor Tutankhamun) is the earliest known example of monotheistic thought. The Hymn has a remarkable similarity to Psalm 104, with which it is frequently compared. The "Hymn to the Aten" was set to music by Philip Glass in his opera Akhnaten.
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